In this book, I assess the possible legal basis for states arming non-state groups (NSG) active within other states in order to determine the legality of such activity and address possible outcomes in the doctrine of international law as a result of its prevalence. There seem to be two main camps in the study of international relations theory that advocate contrasting justifications for this activity, implying different legal consequences emanating from it. Scholars or practitioners operating within a “Realpolitik” intellectual framework appear ultimately to question the legal validity of such actions. Scholars that operate within intellectual frameworks deriving from transcendental norms of international law have a more accommodative approach.
Broadly speaking, the debate is between two camps, with each camp seeking to define the contours of legality for such support. Therefore, in this piece, I seek to evaluate the inherent contradictions of international legal doctrine where various grey areas in the matter effectively prevent international law from providing one simple solution that might be applicable to all cases. I argue that, because international law is so flexible in resolving normative problems, this doctrine means that states eventually resort to the ‘arsenal of powers’ to solve international problems
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Abbreviations
1.1.Possible Violations of International Law.
1.2.Possible Justifications under International
Lawfor Arming Non-State Groups.
1.3.Absence of a Hierarchy of Norms
1.4.Absence of a Centralized Coercion Mechanism:
No ‘Monopoly over the Use of Force’
1.5. Structure of the Book:
II. Theoretical Framework
2.1.International Law and the State System.
2.2.Non-State Armed Groups and International
III. Arming Non-State Groups and Intervention
3.1.Non-Intervention and Prohibition of the Use
of Force under Mainstream Doctrine.
3.2.Self-Determination: A Possible Exception to
Non-Intervention under Mainstream Doctrine?
3.3. Humanitarian Intervention:
A Legitimate Way to Intervene in the Domestic
Affairs of Other States?..
3.4. Conclusion: A Critical Assessment…
IV. Evolving Notions of Warfare and Arming
4.1.The Changing Nature of Warfare .
4.2.A New Concept: The War on Terror...
4.3.Proliferation of Non-State Armed Groups in
the Middle East.....
4.4. Mechanics of Arms Trade and Transfer:
Possible Ways to Arm...
4.5. Conclusion: A Critical Assessment..
V. Law of State Responsibility and Arming
5.1. Attributing Conduct to States...
5.2. Treaty Provisions: State Responsibilities,
Regulations on Arms Transfers, and Arming Non-State Groups
5.3. Conclusion: A Critical Assessment..
Table of Authorities.....
While mainstream legal doctrine seeks to show the illegality of arming NSGs in other states, I try to justify the opposite. To do so, I will first examine mainstream legal arguments before presenting counter-arguments and facts that challenge them. The rest of the book follows the structure described below, with each subsequent chapter presenting the discussion of a specific approach towards the issue at stake.
The second chapter explores the structure of international law and the definitions and various statuses of NSAGs, laying the theoretical foundation of the work. It presents a survey of the history of international legal thought.
The third chapter discusses whether arming NSAGs violates the principles of non-intervention and non-use of force. The argument focuses on the principles of non-intervention and non-use of force as a reflection of the structure of the modern state system. Modern states are characterized by their sovereignty, which is the source of their legitimacy as the final authority in a given territory. The primary foundations of statehood occupy a privileged place in the UN Charter, which praises territorial integrity, political independence, and state sovereignty. It is also echoed in various UN documents and court decisions.
The fourth chapter deals with how and to what extent warfare has undergone deep and critical alterations, and how and to what extent these alterations have contributed to the rise of NSAGs. War, as an extension of diplomacy, has long been carried out by states against states. However, from technological developments to components, every single feature of classical warfare has changed. The fourth chapter explores global arms trade mechanisms, including a detailed survey of Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs), respectively.
In chapter five I discuss the law of state responsibility to determine whether a sponsor state is responsible for misconduct and violations of international law perpetrated by the armed groups that they sponsor.
TABLE OF AUTHORITIES
· Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo, Advisory Opinion, I.C.J. Reports 2010, July 22, 2010, p. 403.
· Affaire des Biens Britanniques au Maroc Espagnol (Espagne contre Royaume Uni), May 1, 1925, Volume II, pp. 615-742.
· Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro), Judgment, ICJ Reports 2007, p.43.
· Armed Activities on the Territory of the Congo (Democratic Republic of the Congo v. Uganda), Judgment, ICJ Reports, December 19, 2005, p. 168.
· Case Concerning the Factory at Chorzow, the PCIJ, Series A, No. 17, 1928.
· Case Concerning the Frontier Dispute (Burkina Faso/Republic of Mali), Judgment, ICJ Reports, December 22, 1986, p. 554.
· Case of Colozza v. Italy (dec), no. 9024/80, ECHR, February 12, 1985.
· Case of Keenan v. The United Kingdom, no. 27229/95, Judgment, ECHR, April 3, 2001.
· Claim of the Salvador Commercial Company (“El Triunfo Company”),Reports of International Arbitral Awards, May 8, 1902, Volume XV.
· Corfu Channel Case, (the UK v. Albania), Judgment, I.C. J. Reports, April 9, 1949, p. 4.
· Council Common Position 2008/944/CFSP of 8 December 2008 defining common rules governing control of exports of military technology and equipment, Official Journal of the European Union, L 335/99, Vol. 51.
· Customs Regime Between Germany and Austria, the PCIJ Series, A/B/No. 41, September 5, 1931.
· East Timor (Portugal v. Australia), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1995, p. 90.
· EU Council Decision 2013/109/CFSP of 28 February 2013 amending Decision 2012/739/CFSP concerning restrictive measures against Syria, OJ L 58, 1.3.2013, p. 8.
· GabCikovo-Nagymaros Project (HungarylSlovakia), Judgment, ICJ Reports 1997, p.7.
· Legal Consequences for States of the Continued Presence of South Africa in Namibia (South West Africa) notwithstanding Security Council Resolution 276 (1970), Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports, June 21, 1971, p. 16.
· Legal Consequences of the Construction of a Wall in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opinion, I. C. J. Reports, July 9, 2004, p. 136.
· Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports, July 8, 1996, p. 226.
· Legality of Use of Force (Yugoslavia v. Belgium), Provisional Measures, ICJ Reports, June 2, 1999, p. 124.
· Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua, (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Merits, Judgment, ICJ Reports, June 27, 1986, p. 14.
· Military and Paramilitary Activities in and against Nicaragua, (Nicaragua v. United States of America), Provisional Measures, I. C.J. Reports, Order of May 10, 1984, p. 22.
· North Sea Continental Shelf, Judgment, ICJ Reports, February20, 1969, p. 3.
· Nuclear Tests (New Zealand v. France), Judgment, ICJ Reports, December 20, 1974, p. 457.
· Oil Platforms, (Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America), Judgment, I. C. J. Reports, November 6, 2003, p. 16.
· Prosecutor v. Dusko Tadic, Judgement, Case No: IT-94-1-A, the ICTY Appeal Chamber, July 15, 1999.
· Prosecutor V. Ratko Mladić, Judgement, Case No: IT-09-92-T, the ICTY Trial Chamber, November 22, 2017.
· Reparation for Injuries Suffered in the Service of the United Nations, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports,April 11, 1949, p. 174.
· South West Africa, Second Phase, Judgment, ICJ Reports, July 18, 1966, p. 6.
· Status of Eastern Carelia, Advisory Opinion, PCIJ Reports, Ser. B, No. 5, July 23, 1923, p. 27.
· U.S. Congress. House. 113th Congress, 2nd session, H.R. 5747.20, November 2014.
· United States Diplomatic and Consular Staff in Tehran, Judgment, I. C. J. Reports, 1980, p. 3.
· Western Sahara, Advisory Opinion, ICJ Reports, October 16, 1975, p. 12.
· Arms Trade Treaty of 2 April 2013, adopted by resolution A/RES/67/234 B of 11 June 2013, annexed to the UN Doc. A/CONF.217/2013/L.3 of March 27, 2013.
· Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which May be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects (Text With Amendments And Protocols Adopted Through 28 November 2003), October 10, 1980, 1342 UNTS 137.
· Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Stockpiling of Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons and on their Destruction, April 10, 1972, 1015 UNTS 163; 11 ILM 309 (1972).
· Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, January 13, 1993, 1974 UNTS 45; 32 ILM 800 (1993).
· Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction, September 18, 1997, 2056 UNTS 241; 36 ILM 1507 (1997).
· Draft Articles on Responsibility of States for Internationally Wrongful Acts, November 2001, Supplement No. 10 (A/56/10), chapter IV.E.1.
· ECOWAS Convention on Small Arms and Light Weapons, their Ammunition and Other Related Materials, signed at Abuja, June 14, 2006.
· European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, November 4, 1950, 213 U.N.T.S. 221; E.T.S. No 5; as amended by Protocols Nos. 11 (E.T.S. No. 155) on November 1, 1998 and 14 (C.E.T.S. No. 194) of May 13, 2004, supplemented by Protocols Nos. 1 (E.T.S. No. 9), 4 (E.T.S. No. 46), 6 (E.T.S. No. 114), 7 (E.T.S. No. 117), 12 (E.T.S. No. 177) and 13 (C.E.T.S. No. 187).
· General Treaty for Renunciation of War as an Instrument of National Policy, 27 August 1927, 94 League of Nations Treaty Series 57.
· Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in the Field (First Geneva Convention), August 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 31.
· Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condition of Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members of Armed Forces at Sea (Second Geneva Convention), August 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 85.
· Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Fourth Geneva Convention), August 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 287.
· Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (Third Geneva Convention), August 12, 1949, 75 UNTS 135.
· Hague Convention (IV) Respecting the Laws and Customs of War on Land and Its Annex: Regulations Concerning the Laws and Customs of War on Land, October 18, 1907, 36 Stat. 2277; Treaty Series 539.
· International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), December 16, 1966, 999 UNTS p. 171.
· International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), December 16, 1966, 993 UNTS p. 3.
· Montevideo Convention 1933, 165 LNTS 19 15.
· Protocol (I) on Non-Detectable Fragments, 1342 U.N.T.S. 168, 19 I.L.M. 1529, entered into force December 2, 1983.
· Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I), June 8, 1977, 1125 UNTS 3.
· Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of August 12, 1949, and Relating to the Protection of Victims of Non-International Armed Conflicts (Protocol II), June 8, 1977, 1125 UNTS 609.
· Protocol Against the Illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms, their parts and Components and Ammunition, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by resolution A/RES/55/255 of May 31, 2001, 2326 UNTS 208.
· Protocol Against the Smuggling of Migrants by Land, Sea and Air, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by resolution A/RES/55/25 of November 15, 2000, 2241 UNTS 507.
· Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, June 17, 1925, XCIV League of Nations Treaty Series 2138.
· Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, adopted by Resolution A/RES/55/25 of November 15, 2000, 2237 UNTS 319.
· The Helsinki Final Act 1975,14 ILM, p. 1292.
· The Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, July 17, 1998, 2187 U.N.T.S. 3.
· UN Charter 1945, 1 UNTS xvi.
· Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties 1969, 1155 UNTS 331.
Security Council Resolutions and Documents
· Concerning Iraq, UN Doc. S/RES/1441 (2002), November 8, 2002.
· East Timor, UN Doc. S/RES/ 384 (1975), December 22, 1975.
· Final Report of the Monitoring Mechanism on Angola Sanctions, UN Security Council Doc. S/2000/1225, December 21, 2010.
· Letters from the United Kingdom (S/1998/223) and the United States (S/1998/272), the UN Doc. S/RES/1160 (1998), March 31, 1998.
· Namibia, UN Doc. S/RES/301 (1971), October 20, 1971.
· On Establishment of a Security Council Committee to Monitor Implementation of the Arms Embargo Against the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, UN Doc. S/RES/1970 (2011), February 26, 2011.
· On Proliferation of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological Weapons, as Well as their Means of Delivery, UN Doc. S/RES/1540 (2004), April 28, 2004.
· On the Situation in the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, UN Doc. S/RES/1973 (2011), March 17, 2011.
· On the Situation on Kosovo, the UN Doc. S/RES/1244 (1999), June 10, 1999.
· Question considered by the Security Council at its 1606th, 1607th and 1608th meetings on 4, 5 and 6 December 1971, the UN Doc. A/RES/2793(XXVI), December 7, 1971.
· Report of the Secretary-General ‘On the Situation in Abkhazia, Georgia. Proposals for Political and Legal Elements for a Comprehensive Settlement of the Georgian/Abkhaz Conflict’, the UN Doc. S/1994/529, May 3, 1994.
· Security Council Resolutions on Iraq’s invasion to Kuwait: 660 (1990) of 2 August 1990, 661 (1990) of 6 August 1990, 662 (1990) of 9 August 1990, 664 (1990) of 18 August 1990, 665 (1990) of 25 August 1990, 666 (1990) of 13 September 1990, 667 (1990) of 16 September 1990, 669 (1990) of 24 September 1990, 670 (1990) of 25 September 1990, 674 (1990) of 29 October 1990 and 677 (1990) of 28 November 1990.
· Territories Under Portuguese Administration, UN Doc. S/RES/183 (1963), December 11, 1963.
· Western Sahara, UN Doc. S/RES/ 377 (1975), October 22, 1975.
General Assembly Resolutions and Documents
· 2005 World Summit Outcome, UN Doc. A/RES/60/1, October 24, 2005.
· An Agenda for Peace, UN Doc. A/47/277, June 17, 1992.
· Annex II of the Report of the Secretary-General ‘On the Situation in Abkhazia, Georgia. Proposals for Political and Legal Elements for a Comprehensive Settlement of the Georgian/Abkhaz Conflict’, the UN Doc. S/1994/529, May 3, 1994.
· Declaration of the High-level Meeting of the General Assembly on the Rule of Law at the National and International Levels, UN Doc. A/RES/67/1, November 30, 2012.
· Declaration on Principles of International Law concerning Friendly Relations and Co-operation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations, UN Doc. A/RES/2625 (XXV), October 24, 1970.
· Declaration on the Enhancement of the Effectiveness of the Principle of Refraining from the Threat or Use of Force in International Relations, UN Doc. A/RES/42/22, November 18, 1987.
· Declaration on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples Adopted by General Assembly resolution, UN Doc. 1514 (XV), December 14, 1960.
· Declaration on the Inadmissibility of Intervention in the Domestic Affairs of States and the Protection of their Independence and Sovereignty, UN Doc. A/RES/2131 (XX), December 21, 1965.
· Declaration on the Occasion of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the United Nations, UN Doc. A/RES/50/6, October 24, 1995.
· Definition of Aggression, UN Doc. A/RES/3314 (XXIX), December 14, 1974.
· Draft International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons, [Hereinafter International Tracing Instrument], Annexed to Report of the Open-ended Working Group to Negotiate an International Instrument to Enable States to Identify and Trace, in a Timely and Reliable Manner, Illicit Small Arms and Light Weapons, the UN Documents, A/60/88, June 27, 2005.
· General and Complete Disarmament: Transparency in Armaments, UN Doc. A/RES/46/36, December 6, 1991.
· Importance of the Universal Realization of the Right of Peoples to Self-Determination and of the Speedy Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples for the Effective Guarantee and Observance of Human Rights, UN Doc. A\RES\2787 (XXVI), December 6, 1971.
· Question considered by the Security Council at its 1606th, 1607th and 1608th meetings on 4, 5 and 6 December 1971, the UN Doc. A/RES/2793(XXVI), December 7, 1971.
· Question of Territories under Portuguese Administration, UN Doc. A/RES/2918 (XXVII), November 14, 1972.
· Report of the International Law Commission on the Work of its Thirty-second Session,U.N. Doc. A/35/10, May 5-July 25, 1980, p. 31.
· Request for an advisory opinion of the International Court of Justice on whether the unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo is in accordance with international law, the UN Doc. A/RES/63/3, October 8, 2008.
· Strict Observance of the Prohibition of the Threat or Use of Force in International Relations, and of the Right of Peoples to Self-Determination, UN Doc. A\RES\2160 (XXI), November 30, 1966.
· The Arms Trade Treaty, UN Doc. A/RES/64/48, January 12, 2010.
· The Arms Trade Treaty, UN Doc. A/RES/67/234 B, June 11, 2013.
· The Arms Trade Treaty, UN Doc. A/RES/67/234, January 4, 2013.
· The Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects [Hereinafter Action Plan], in Report of the United Nations Conference on the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects: New York, July 9-20, 2001, the UN Documents A/CONF.192/15.
· The Question of Southern Rhodesia, UN Doc. A/RES/1747(XVI), June 28, 1962.
· The Question of Southern Rhodesia, UN Doc. A/RES/1755(XVII), October 12, 1962.
· The Question of Southern Rhodesia, UN Doc. A/RES/1760(XVII), October 31, 1962.
· The Question of Southern Rhodesia, UN Doc. A/RES/2138(XXI), October 22, 1966.
· The Question of Southern Rhodesia, UN Doc. A/RES/2151(XXI), November 17, 1966.
· The Question of Southern Rhodesia, UN Doc. A/RES/2379(XXIII), October 25, 1968.
· The Question of Southern Rhodesia, UN Doc. A/RES/2383(XXIII), November 7, 1968.
· The Report of the Panel of Governmental Experts on Small Arms Annexed to the UN Document on General and Complete Disarmament: Small Arms, UN Doc. A/52/298, August 27, 1997.
· Towards an Arms Trade Treaty: Establishing Common International Standards for the Import, Export and Transfer of Conventional Arms, UN Doc. A/RES/63/240, January 8, 2009.
· Towards an Arms Trade Treaty: Establishing Common International Standards for the Import, Export and Transfer of Conventional Arms, UN Doc. A/RES/61/89, December 18, 2006.
· Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action Adopted by the World Conference on Human Rights, A/CONF. 157/24, June 25, 1993.